Here is a list of most frequent medical conditions in ophthalmology.
Glaucoma is a common, insidious and potentially blinding disease.
Myopia (or shortsightedness), astigmatism, hyperopia and presbyopia are refraction anomalies: it means that the image perceived is blurred as it is not focused on the retina.
The eye is anatomically divided between the anterior segment in front of the cristalline lens, and the posterior segment back.
Cataract is a clouding of the natural lens usually related to age. It can be congenital, meaning presents since birth, but also secondary to another condition e.g. ocular traumatism or inflammation.